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3, December 2002 184-192 Scott.

3, December 2002 184-192 Scott.

Representation is worried with techniques and actions, specially professional practice in industries such as for example school teaching (Allen, 1992; Beyer, 1989; Collier, 1999), nursing (Burns & Bulman, 2000), social work (Fook, 1996), and management “communities of practice” (Welsh & Dehler, 2004). Representation also creates inquiry and a seek out meaning; it gives the prospective to see things in method they will have maybe not been grasped before. More just, reflective practice plays a part in learning.

What i have learnt that will be forever beneficial to me could be the ability to dialogue, this a very essential instrument specially in a group work scenario. Once more it really is good to be controlled by the first choice as two wrongs can never produce a right, it really is totally unfair when downline refuse to pay attention to the first choice, and demonstrably things will maybe not go well. I have also learnt that in the future i am aware clearly the cornerstone of my task before i start up with work with it, as this delayed my group from moving forward through the presentation, as though we were moving around inside the same circle, before we got our priorities right.

“The method of reflection is frequently dialogue through which subjective and objective experience is processed, questioned, and meaning is made of it. Representation through dialogue demonstrates students’ learning through their ability to conceptualize what they discovered, the meaning it offers for his or her present and future, as well as the recognition they are neither the exact same person while they were many years previously nor should they expect you’ll be described as a several years ergo. Baker, Jensen, and Kolb (2002) labelled this process to learning “the inside-out approach.” Scott G. S (2010) p 433

In concluding this reflection report it really is interesting to note that “learning can be viewed as being a means of argumentation in which thinking, reflecting, experiencing and action are very different areas of the same process”. Additionally it is a practical argumentation with oneself plus in collaboration with others that truly forms the basis of learning. (Pavlica et al. 1998: 145) in Corley A and Eades E (2004, P 138)

Through the report on literature it absolutely was noted in accordance with Jeffrey D et al. (2000) that reflection just isn’t a totally new process and some article writers trace it towards the work of Socrates, they proceeded to describe representation “as a process of disengaging from or stepping straight back from an experience and taking time for you deliberately and carefully review it, think about any of it and construct meaning as a result, nonetheless representation is thought to have a past, present and future element.

In this report the journalist was able to reflect generally in regards to the past experience, looking through the beginning of the marketing communications master’s degree first impression, through to the present time which includes regarding the ability while writing up the dissertation, additionally it is interesting to see that the journalist also discussed briefly of future expectations and learning from the past experience that will definitely affect the long run work.

Having reflected on my experience from first day of university up until the occasions of my final dissertation, I am going to say i have actually enjoyed the entire process. Meeting friends from other elements of the entire world was a a valuable thing to remember, with no exceptions of my tutors who have been always there, and prepared to help with whatever need we would have through the length of study. However i quit e agree aided by the notion of personal reflections since it provides possibility to think straight back making amends as required.https://medium.com/@vladimirtrofimov049/3-best-business-essay-samples-89565e1951d8 This in turn may have a positive influence on a person.

Miriam Catterall, Pauline Maclaran, and Lorna Stevens (2010) Critical representation into the Marketing Curriculum Journal of Marketing Education, Vol. 24 Number 3, December 2002 184-192

Scott. G Susanne (2010) Boosting Reflection Skills through Learning Portfolios:

An Empirical Test. Journal of Management Education 34(3) 430-457. The Author(s) , http://www. sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav

Fuguan Tan (2009) Tri-fold Transformation: A Worldwide Adult Student’s Reflections on Online Learning.

Walker E. S (2006). Journal Writing as a Teaching strategy to Promote Reflection Journal of Athletic Training Vol. 41, No 2 p216-221

Klenowski Val and Lunt Ingrid (2008) Enhancing learning at doctoral level with the use of representation. Taylor & Francis

Walsh Anita (2009) Modes of representation: Is it possible to make use of both individual and collective representation to reconcile the ‘three-party knowledge interests’ in workplace learning? European Journal of Education, Vol. 44, Number 3, 2009, Part I _1389 385

Aileen Corley and Elaine Eades (2004) ‘Becoming’ critically reflective practitioners: academics’ and students’ reflections regarding the dilemmas involved. Pp. 137-144. Human Resource Development Overseas, Taylor and Francis Limited

Horton-Deutsch Sarah and Sherwood Gwen (2008) representation: a educational strategy to develop emotionally- competent nurse leaders. Journal of Nursing Management, 16, 946-954

Doyle, Wendy; Young, Jeffrey D (2000).Managing Development: Making the most Experience and representation. Fall2000, Vol. 25 Issue 3, p18

Marianne van Woerkom, (2010) Advances in Developing Human Resouces. The thought of Critical representation as well as its Implications for Human Resource Development Advances in Developing Human Resources Vol. 6, # 2 p 178-192

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3964 words (16 pages) Essay

1st Jun 2020 Health Reference this

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This chapter offers a comprehensive critical literature review of a small number of sources which can be regarded as being specially useful in exploring the two key themes with this dissertation. The very first of those themes could be the impact of drug use regarding the health of this teenagers aged 13-19 in London, as the second could be the impact of governmental methods in tackling drug use amongst teenagers aged 13-19 in London. These themes are discussed utilising the resources selected, as well as the quality, methodological approach, relevance and ethical and anti-oppressive techniques are typical an element of the critical review. The chapter finishes by having a quick summary bringing these key ideas together.

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The first theme investigates the impact of drug use on certain areas of health on teenagers in London. You can find two key sources that form the core with this critical review for this theme. Nevertheless, neither among these relate with the mark population, plus in each situation some extrapolation of findings is manufactured so that you can describe the likely faculties of 13 – 19 years’ olds in London.

The very first is source could be the case-controlled study carried down by Di Forti et al (2015:1), and fleetingly discussed in Chapter Two above. Looking more closely as of this study, and reviewing it critically, it still stays a of good use article, since it targets the mental health impacts of cannabis and shows an obvious association involving the use of the drug in its high strength type (skunk) and psychosis. It could maybe not at first appear that the study is applicable considering that it started in 2005. Nonetheless, it continued recruiting for over 6 years, and amassed quite a lot of data on those individuals abusing drugs – specifically high strength and easily available cannabis.

The investigation study used a primary research methodology. For the recruitment of situations, the authors approached all patients (18 – 65 years) with first episode psychosis presenting at the inpatient units of this South London and Maudsley Hospital. They invited visitors to be involved in the analysis only should they met the International Classification of Diseases 10 criteria for a diagnosis of non-affective (F20–F29) or affective (F30–F33) psychosis, which they validated by administering the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) (Di Forti et al, 2015:2). For the controls, the authors used internet and newspaper ads and in addition distributed leaflets on public transport plus in shops and work centres. The controls got the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire and were excluded should they met the criteria for a psychotic disorder. As the two groups only included the final couple of years of this target population group because of this study i.e. 18 and 19 year olds, it was a study positioned in London, and on analysis did actually indicate a number of faculties that have been experienced to be ideal for providing information that will additionally be ideal for younger teenagers.

All participants (situations and controls) within the study provided written informed consent under the ethical approval obtained from the Institute of Psychiatry Local Research Ethics Committee. There failed to seem to be any unethical techniques, nevertheless the study had the prospective to be oppressive as by the type of this patients presenting at the clinics, and by the type of these usage of skunk, being prone to be of specific ethnic groups – especially of black West Indian origin – it could be argued that the analysis to some extent misrepresented the populations of south west London, and more especially, the West Indian communities found there. Simply put, the inclusion of participants from these origins could be more likely to provide observers an unjust view of this ethnic group or of this population of the part of London all together.  

The strategy used in combination with the participants had been quantitative and involved questionnaire assessments, especially socioeconomic data as well as the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire modified version (CEQmv) which included data on history of usage of alcohol. tobacco, alcohol, every other usage of recreational drugs, and step-by-step information on cannabis use (i.e. first use age, use timeframe, frequency of use, variety of cannabis used) (Di Forti et al, 2015:2). Between 2005 and 2011, the researchers approached 606 patients of which 145 (24%) refused to engage, therefore 461 patients with first-episode psychosis were recruited. Employing a array of statistical tests, and adjusting for many variables like the variables for frequency of cannabis use and the form of cannabis used, plus in combining these the authors unearthed that controls were prone to be occasional users of hash, while the frequent users were prone to be making use of skunk. In addition they found, making use of logistic regression, that the individuals who’d started making use of cannabis at a younger age had a greater threat of developing psychotic episodes (Di Forti et al, 2015:5).

The second resource to be analysed was the analysis by McCardle (2004). This is a literature review targeting the impacts of substance abuse by young ones and teenagers. Although this failed to make use of primary research, it offered a helpful analysis of a amount of other studies.  Even though the age of this study implied so it might have had limited relevance to teenagers in 2017, in fact the analysis related right to the findings for the later Di Forti et al study. This is because McCardle (2004:1) unearthed that cannabis had been becoming stronger than it turned out into the past – just as Di Forti et al unearthed that skunk use had been increasing and that it was of a greater strength than previously. McCardle (2004:2) also unearthed that there was clearly a selection of mental health dilemmas resulting from the application of cannabis, including an elevated risk of suicide, plus an escalation in aggressive, disassociated behaviours, anxiety, depression as well as other similar dilemmas (McCardle, 2004:2). Another of good use part of this research had been so it identified the difficulties of terminology concerning the gathering and analysis of data – a lot of different terms are employed it is usually tough to ascertain accurate trends and outcomes (McCardle, 2004:3). Whilst it could have been preferred to own used a London based source or the one that engaged participants of this target generation though a primary method, having less resources of scholastic literature implied that this study had been valuable in that it analysed other studies, and in addition existing datasets from the UK government. This article also dedicated to the social impacts of cannabis, as an example, looking at the developmental impacts, as well as the unwanted effects on education, both of which may cause poor outcomes with regards to total well being and attainment in later life.

The findings from these two articles offered valid proof the relationship involving the usage of cannabis and mental, emotional, social and physical health of teenagers and teenagers. Even though there had been limited focus on the population age target group for the dissertation especially, both articles offered relevant tourist attractions, and it’s also possible to extrapolate from them to suggest that teenagers in London engaged in cannabis abuse are extremely probably be vulnerable to experiencing the various health results identified above.

Finding scholastic research sources that focused on present government methods directed at the mark group situated in London had been extremely challenging. For the most up-to-date strategy – the distressed Families Programme, Lambert and Crossley (2017:1) get to the very heart of this ethical and oppressive techniques issue, while they argue that this government strategy is one of a wider spectrum of policies that locates dilemmas inside the family members itself, and which emphasises behaviour since the target for action aside from the socio-economic influences that you can get. It is a review study – critically reviewing a technique – and is extremely current, while the TFP has recently been revisited by the Government, who’re considering an extension, despite evidence so it have not met its objectives or expected outcomes. While this informative article just isn’t according to an item of primary data, the authors have conducted primary data concerning this issue through interviews in the extremely recent past, as well as the article describes these. They will have unearthed that TFP has continued the view of target families as an ‘underclass’, as ‘neighbours from hell’ so when expensive and extremely tough to ‘treat’. As the TFP took a holistic approach, making use of one individual or team to utilize families on their dilemmas, Lambert and Crossley (2017:4), among others (Bonell et al, 2016) argue that the underlying attitude regarding the Government and of this strategy implied that its approach had been unlikely to ensure success.

This chapter showed that there were plainly linked health impacts if you use cannabis; a few of these impacts were severe, and often included mental illness and behavioural change, specially where high strength cannabis had been used. In addition showed that despite a long time of government methods and policies, there still will not seem to be a remedy that will decrease the use or impacts of cannabis as well as other drugs. The final chapter provides a representation regarding the research undertaken because of this dissertation, and provides some brief conclusions and suggestions. 

In this final chapter, three tasks are completed. First, a reflective account of this research is undertaken. In research and practice, representation on a task and outcome is vital as it supplies the author aided by the possibility to look straight back and study on their actions. You can find in fact two forms of representation, both of that will be applicable to the work. The first definition is that of ‘reflection’ which will be regarded as being a ‘process or activity’ that involves thinking and is judged to add cognitive processes of problem finding and problem solving (Leitch and Day, 2000:180). The second form of representation is that of ‘reflective practice’. Here is the usage of representation and reflective skills to transfer learnt knowledge i.e. theories towards the application of the theories towards the everyday techniques of an individual. It is often been shown to be important for individual practitioners since it aids their ability to understand from their actions and associated outcomes, and enables them to produce improvements according to experience and theoretical knowledge (White et al, 2016:9).

There are two main models of representation which you can use to aid the reflective researcher or the reflective practitioner. These are Kolb’s model of experiential learning (Kolb, 1984) and Gibbs’ reflective cycle (Gibbs, 1988). Gibbs developed his model as being a refinement of this early in the day Kolb model, and it’s also Gibbs’ model that is used in this dissertation.

 

The Gibbs Model offers a researcher aided by the possibility to gain a deep comprehension of just what they will have learned (Park and Kastanis, 2009:11) as well as the skills and weaknesses of these work, their underlying values, the insufficiency of these approach, and aspects of improvement (Park and Son, 2012:3). For these reasons the Gibbs Model is going to be applied below.

4.1.1 The Ability

The process of writing the dissertation had been both challenging and enjoyable. It absolutely was enjoyable because any research activity is one of problem solving and of trying to find information, and those two activities can be extremely satisfying if they cause learning something new. While primary research is usually regarded as the absolute most valid kind of activity, in fact secondary research, based since it is regarding the gathering of existing data, as well as the synthesis of that data to suggest new outcomes or findings, could be in the same way valid, and just since difficult as carrying down processes that collect new or primary data.

4.1.2 The Challenges and also the Achievements

As alluded to a amount of times throughout this dissertation there were a number of difficulties or challenges. The decision of this topic was in retrospect a good one because it focussed on a population group in a certain location, London, that had plainly received little research focus previously. While there is substantial data gathered on drug use and abuse more generally in the UK and more generally across age ranges, almost no was done in terms of the 13 – 19 year old age group. In fact, it absolutely was this aspect that caused the greatest difficulty in doing the dissertation – the lack of resources and data available that have been relevant to this generation, in London, for almost any type of drug use other than newsprint articles that often used the matter of drug use in terms of crime, ethnic minorities or deprivation, implied that the info which was available must be used carefully. As an example, it absolutely was possible to have scholastic resources such as that of Di Forti et al, that looked at drug abuse, especially, cannabis, in London, but only two years of respondents in that study (18 and 19 year olds) squeeze into this dissertation, while the study by McCardle (2004) provided relevance towards the wider generation (15 – 24) but had not been situated in London, so could point out some of good use outcomes but failed to have certain locational knowledge. In terms of the methods developed to address the matter, once more the sourced elements of an scholastic nature were very limited, made more challenging as the newest strategies, i.e. those that had taken place into the past five years, have yet to undergo much scholastic analysis, but since they are an extremely different approach from those used ten years or more ago, there was little point in wanting to evaluate those older approaches.

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Inspite of the difficulties outlined above, it absolutely was experienced that there were amount of positives obtained from the research. As there was clearly this type of dearth of resources available, this dissertation generally seems to provide new research and new analysis of data because of this band of the people in this location. As a result, mcdougal felt that the legitimacy of these range of topic and their research approach had been justified to some extent. With regards to time management, it absolutely was experienced that the investigation had been planned well, and though the seek out data and resources took longer than expected, it absolutely was still possible to add the timing required in to the overall research schedule. The investigation also challenged the overall values and judgements held by the author in the very beginning of the process. Whilst it absolutely was experienced that a point of knowledge happened about these dilemmas, there were some preconceptions held about the form of teenagers that participated in drug use. The gathering for the data enabled the author to challenge those preconceptions specially in terms of the factors that cause individuals of this age to start abusing drugs. This new understanding allowed the author to start out to look at the difficulties differently.

4.1.3 Changes Required

There are always a amount of changes that might be implemented to really make the research easier also to address the question of limited resources. Firstly, the age range is extended to add young ones from the age of 0 years to 24 or 25 years, as this might enable a lot more data sources to be used, and so they could possibly be more easily analysed and extrapolation created for teenage years. Second, the inclusion of drug use by parents impacting regarding the health of these young ones is included, as this matter has consistently emerged as being a key problem for young ones and teenagers through the entire data collection, and will be described as a major aspect in determining whether teenagers be involved in drug use and abuse. Finally, although London would nevertheless be the locational focus, must be lot of data that is collected for London as well as the South-East, the locational boundaries is stretched to add this area inside the research.  If these changes were placed into destination, it will be a positive exercise to undertake the investigation process once more to see if it absolutely was possible to have data and achieve findings that have been more valuable than those already developed.

4.1.4 Applying the Gibb’s Style of Representation

 

Having applied Gibbs’ model of representation it really is beneficial to note that the representation that is performed in stages can cause a targeted course of action, which could form the framework for new research. Gibbs’ model will not fundamentally allow for complexity, nonetheless, since it is just a linear-cyclical model, and found in this way cannot represent the numerous complexities and variables that characterise the matter of drug use amongst teenagers.

The investigation question that this dissertation attempt to examine had been:

Just What patterns of drug use occur amongst teenagers in London, and which are the factors, health impacts and possible solutions?

Inspite of the difficulties in acquiring certain data for teenagers aged 13 – 19 in London, there was clearly enough information available to help you to deliver a remedy to the research question. From the prevalence perspective, the info showed that as the prevalence of drug use was decreasing overall, there were aspects of London that had disproportionately higher levels, specially amongst certain ethnic groups. Nonetheless, amongst all drug abusers, cannabis was many used drug. The sources of drug use amongst teenagers was found to be always a complex blend of environmental, emotional, mental health and peer pressure related factors, and thus addressing the thing is always going to be challenging for policy makers and medical providers.

In terms of the health impacts, the last chapter has revealed there is clear evidence that its use could be plainly connected with health outcomes of mental health including psychosis as well as the development of schizophrenia for drug abusers of any age. Not only this, but it is also quite apparent that teenagers participating in drug use are greatly predisposed to see other health related dilemmas due to their attitude to risk, and their participation in high-risk behaviours when they are intoxicated by the drug. These other dilemmas include contracting STIs, teenage pregnancy, the taking of other drugs and substances that have more severe health impacts, playing criminal activities that will cause violence so as to obtain money to get drugs an such like.

Looking at the strategy which includes lately been developed to try and address the dilemma of teenage drug used in London, it really is apparent so it have not succeeded in its aims, objectives or objectives. This is apparently the effect mainly of this oppressive nature of all of the such methods held by UK Governments over the last few years – an attitude that views those with drug use as well as other dilemmas, as ‘problem families’ that need to be ‘solved’, instead of wanting to really determine what it really is about society in general that leads to such families existing into the first place. a give attention to social, economic and environmental dilemmas rather than regarding the families on their own might cause a better outcome. 

Having performed a review of the literature surrounding this matter, there are a few key suggestions that can straight away be manufactured. The very first of those suggestions relates to the info designed for this matter – as indicated previously, one of many challenges of doing this dissertation had been the paucity of data concerning the certain population being studied. It really is, therefore, recommended, that clinical tests, or government agencies collecting data, should target this generation especially when data is being collected about drug use or abuse. An alternative solution to this is for researchers to search for the raw data from the many data collection agencies and sources, also to extrapolate the data that crosses the boundaries of this targeted populations group, and reprocess that data for the mark generation. The second recommendation relates never to the info, but towards the dilemmas. It seems that controlling the option of drugs is difficult, specially as you can find so many different types, and some, like cannabis, seem to be regularly available. As there is apparently an ongoing lowering of how many teenagers making use of these illegal drugs, it could be the better choice to capitalise on this trend by providing better educational initiatives to share with individuals of the hazards with their health. It could additionally be appropriate to try and determine which factors were likely to cause teenagers to start abusing drugs and to locate methods for addressing these factors more effectively than was the truth to date.

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2281 words (9 pages) Essay

14th May 2018 Biology Reference this

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The resting membrane potential (RMP) can be an electrical prospective huge difference in cells, occurring across their plasma membranes. The cytoplasm of this mobile is electrically negative when compared with the nearby extracellular fluid, this huge difference in electrical charge gives rise towards the RMP. The RMP is vital for the functioning of several electrically excitable cells including, neuronal cells, smooth and skeletal muscle tissue cells, in addition to cardiac myocytes, which through electrical impulses control the contractility of this heart.

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With this essay the generation of this resting membrane potential is going to be explored, like the aftereffects of the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium conditions, the structure and function of the plasma membrane, and how, aided by the diffusion of ions by way of a semi permeable membrane they offer rise to the RMP. (Levy, N.

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